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Diabetes Clinic
 
Ocular disease due to diabetes
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Hear from the patients who received treatment from Dr. Young



Diabetes was named due to high glucose overflows into urine. The glucose in the food we eat is the basic components of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates is changed into glucose by digestive enzymes and absorbed into blood. In order for Glucose to be absorbed in our body cells, a hormone called insulin is nessary.

The pancreatic secretion of insulin is secreted from pancreatic langerhans islet and lowers the blood sugar after a meal.

If insulin is insufficient due to various reasons, or when performance degrades, glucose absorbed in the body cannot be absorbed and overflows to the urine. This pathological condition is called “diabetes.”

Korean diabetic population is increasing due to overeating, lack of exercise, increased stress by the economic and social development in recent years. Currently, 5%of total population of 48 million people is estimated as the people with diabetes. But half of these people live not knowing they have diabetes.

 
1. Eye Complications
 
  Retinopathy
Nonproliferative retinopathy (the early stage of retinopathy)
Retinal blood vessel walls beome weak
Deposits in the blood vessel are made by body fluid leaks or swells.
Due to macular with weak focus, eye sight gets worse.
 
  Proliferative retinopathy
Neovascularization is ruptured in the retina, and the light cannot enter into the vitreous.
Scars are made and retinal gets destroyed. The retina is torn away and vision is completely lost.
[Treatment]
Nonproliferative retinopathy: No need for immediate treatment
Proliferative retinopathy: photocoagulation using laser light
Vitreous hemorrhage: vitrectomy
 
  Cataract

It is a disease the transparent lense is blurred.

[Treatment]
Remove the lense by surgery
After surgery, wear glasses, contact lenses, implanted intraocular lens.
 
2. Renal complications
 
  Diabetic nephropathy
  The capillaries of the kidney are damaged, and diabetic nephropathy occurs. When nephropathy occurs, the protein that does not come out normally comes out to the urine and “uremic” – a problem with urine excretion of waste – occurs.
   
[Treatment]
Hemodialysis (more than 3 times a week in the hospital), peritoneal dialysis (1day at home 3-4 times), kidney transplant
 
It is the most appropriate body weight to maintain health in everyday life.

In other words, the best weight for healthy life with long lifespan. Especially, diabetes has a close relationship with weight, so every patient who has diabetes must know his/her ideal weight.
 
  The method to calculate standard weight
Man: ideal weight (kg) = height (m) squre X 22

Woman: ideal weight (kg) = height (m) squre X 21
 
  Caculating total energy for a day

Total energy for a day can be calculated with a person’s ideal weight as a standard.
However, it may vary depending on the degree of activity.

 
  Calculus of a day’s calories depending on activity
  Patients with little or no physical activity: ideal weight (kg) X 25~30 calories

Patients with standard activity: ideal weight (kg) X 30~35 calories

Patients with sever activity: ideal weight (kg) X 35~40 calories Ex) ideal weight = 69.7kg
 
  Note
1. In case of pregnancy, breast-feeding: calories calculated aboe + (300-500) calories 

2. In case of child and adolescent 

- 4~6 years old: 90 calories/ kg
- 7~10 years old: 70 calories/ kg
- 11~18 years old: man 50calories/kg, woman: 45 calories/ kg

When you keep having high blood sugar even though you take the calories above, you should adjust the amount of insulin.
 
  (2) Food planner
Having various foods is one of the most important diabetes diet.

1) The category of food we take
– grain (rice, bread, noodle, rice cake, corn…)
- Meat and fish (meat, fish,tofu, egg, bean….)
- vegetables (cabbage, spinach, cucumber, mushroom, carrot, brown seaweed…)
 
[Treatment]
Hemodialysis (3 times a wekk in the hospital), peritoneal dialysis (1 day at home 3-4 times), kidney transplant

 

 
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